Satanic temptation narratives typically use two paradigms, one of which emphasizes temporality. Raising doubts about the past and future entails a spiritual element. Relatively recent narratives, such as Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown" and Oates's "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" show changes in this temporal paradigm that may indicate changing views of spirituality. Christian Davis teaches language and literature at Bethel College, Mishawaka, Indiana.