The idea that persons are or contain a nonphysical soul that is capable of existing after the destruction of the human body is customarily called “dualism.” Over the course of two millennia, the Christian tradition has been solidly in the dualist camp. Most Christians have affirmed the existence of the soul, its survival of death and its re-embodiment at the final resurrection. In recent decades, however, there has been a growth in the number of Christian scholars who deny the existence of the soul and affirm some form of materialism. In this paper, Stewart Goetz and Charles Taliaferro examine the prospect of Christian materialism. Mr. Goetz is at Professor of Philosophy at Ursinus College and Mr. Taliaferro is Professor of Philosophy at St. Olaf College.